2012年3月15日

[ANNOUNCE] LinSched for v3.3-rc7

Hi All,

[ Take 2, gmail tried to a non text/plain component into the last email .. ]

Quick start version:

Available under linsched-alpha at:
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/pjt/linsched.git .linsched


NOTE: The branch history is still subject to some revision as I am
still re-partitioning some of the patches. Once this is complete, I
will promote linsched-alpha into a linsched branch at which point it
will no longer be subject to history re-writes.

After checking out the code:
cd tools/linsched
make
cd tests
./run_tests.sh basic_tests
<< then try changing some scheduler parameters, e.g. sched_latency,
and repeating >>

(Note: The basic_tests are unit-tests, these are calibrated to the
current scheduler tunables and should strictly be considered sanity
tests. Please see the mcarlo-sim work for a more useful testing
environment.)

Extended version:

First of all, apologies in the delay to posting this -- I know there's
been a lot of interest. We made the choice to first rebase to v3.3
since there were fairly extensive changes, especially within the
scheduler, that meant we had the opportunity to significantly clean up
some of the LinSched code. (For example, previously we were
processing kernel/sched* using awk as a Makefile step so that we could
extract the necessary structure information without modifying
sched.c!) While the code benefited greatly from this, there were
several other changes that required fairly extensive modification in
this process (and in the meanwhile the v3.1 version became less
representative due to the extent of the above changes); which pushed
things out much further than I would have liked. I suppose the moral
of the story is always release early, and often.

That said, I'm relatively happy with the current state of integration,
there's certainly some specific areas that can still be greatly
improved (in particular, the main simulator loop has not had as much
attention paid as the LinSched<>Kernel interactions and there's a long
list of TODOs that could be improved there), but things are now mated
fairly cleanly through the use of a new LinSched architecture. This
is a total re-write of almost all LinSched<>Kernel interactions versus
the previous (2.6.35) version, and has allowed us to now carry almost
zero modifications against the kernel source. It's both possible to
develop/test in place, as well as being patch compatible. The
remaining touch-points now total just 20 lines! Half of these are
likely mergable, with the other 10 lines being more LinSched specific
at this point in time, I've broken these down below:

The total damage:
include/linux/init.h | 6 ++++++ (linsched ugliness,
unfortunately necessary until we boot-strap proper initcall support)
include/linux/rcupdate.h | 3 +++ (only necessary to allow -O0
compilation which is extremely handy for analyzing the scheduler using
gdb)
kernel/pid.c | 4 ++++ (linsched ugliness,
these can go eventually)
kernel/sched/fair.c | 2 +- (this is just the
promotion of 1 structure and function from static state which weren't
published in the sched/ re-factoring that we need from within the
simulator)
kernel/sched/stats.c | 2 +-
kernel/time/timekeeping.c | 3 ++- (this fixes a time-dilation
error due to rounding when our clock-source has ns-resolution, e.g.
shift==1)
6 files changed, 17 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

Summarized changes vs 2.6.35 (previous version):

- The original LinSched (understandably) simplified many of the kernel
interactions in order to make simulation easier. Unfortunately, this
has serious side-effects on the accuracy of simulation. We've now
introduced a large portion of this state, including: irq and soft-irq
contexts (we now perform periodic load-balance out of SCHED_SOFTIRQ
for example), support for active load-balancing, correctly modeled
nohz interactions, ipi and stop-task support.

- Support for record and replay of application scheduling via perf.
This is not yet well integrated, but under tests exist the tools to
record an applications behavior using perf sched record, and then play
it back in the simulator.

- Load-balancer scoring. This one is a very promising new avenue for
load-balancer testing. We analyzed several workloads and found that
they could be well-modeled using a log-normal distribution.
Parameterizing these models then allows us to construct a large (500)
test-case set of randomly generated workloads that behave similarly.
By integrating the variance between the current load-balance and an
offline computed (currently greedy first-fit) balance we're able to
automatically identify and score an approximation of our distance from
an ideal load-balance. Historically, such scores are very difficult
to interpret, however, that's where our ability to generate a large
set of test-cases above comes in. This allows us to exploit a nice
property, it's much easier to design a scoring function that diverges
(in this case the variance) than a nice stable one that converges. We
can then catch regressions in load-balancer quality by measuring the
divergence in this set of scoring functions across our set of
test-cases. This particular feature needs a large set of
documentation in itself (todo), but to get started with playing with
it see Makefile.mcarlo-sims in tools/linsched/tests. In particular to
evaluate the entire set across a variety of topologies the following
command can be issued:
make -j <num_cpus * 2 > -f Makefile.mcarlo-sims
(The included 'diff-mcarlo-500' tool can then be used to make
comparisons across result sets.)

- Validation versus real hardware. Under tests/validation we've
included a tool for replaying and recording the above simulations on a
live-machine. These can then be compared to simulated runs using the
tools above to ensure that LinSched is modelling your architecture
reasonably appropriately. We did some reasonably extensive
comparisons versus several x86 topologies in the v3.1 code using this;
it's a fundamentally hard problem -- in particular there's much more
clock drift between events on real hardware, but the results showed
the included topologies to be a reasonable simulacrum under LinSched.

What's to come?
- More documentation, especially about the use of the new
load-balancer scoring tools.
- The history is very coarse right now as a result of going through a
rebase cement-mixer. I'd like to incrementally refactor some of the
larger commits; once this is done I will promote linsched-alpha to a
stable linsched branch that won't be subject to history re-writes.
- KBuild integration. We currently build everything out of the
tools/linsched makefiles. One of the immediate TODOs involves
re-working the arch/linsched half of this to work with kbuild so that
its less hacky/fragile.
- Writing up some of the existing TODOs as starting points for anyone
who wants to get involved.

I'd also like to take a moment to specially recognize the effort of
the following contributors, all of whom were involved extensively in
the work above. Things have come a long way since the 5000 lines of
"#ifdef LINSCHED", the current status would not be possible without
them.
Ben Segall, Dhaval Giani, Ranjit Manomohan, Nikhil Rao, and Abhishek
Srivastava

Thanks!
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投稿者 xml-rpc : 2012年3月15日 12:58
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