[installer 2944] postgresql-9.1.0

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☆ postgresql-9.1.0

Release 9.1

Release Date: 2011-09-12


This release shows PostgreSQL moving beyond the traditional
relational-database feature set with new, ground-breaking functionality
that is unique to PostgreSQL. The streaming replication feature
introduced in release 9.0 is significantly enhanced by adding a
synchronous-replication option, streaming backups, and monitoring
improvements. Major enhancements include:

* Allow synchronous replication
* Add support for foreign tables
* Add per-column collation support
* Add extensions which simplify packaging of additions to PostgreSQL
* Add a true serializable isolation level
* Support unlogged tables using the UNLOGGED option in "CREATE TABLE"
* Allow data-modification commands ("INSERT"/"UPDATE"/"DELETE") in
WITH clauses
* Add nearest-neighbor (order-by-operator) searching to GiST indexes
* Add a "SECURITY LABEL" command and support for SELinux permissions
* Update the PL/Python server-side language

The above items are explained in more detail in the sections below.

Migration to Version 9.1

A dump/restore using pg_dump, or use of pg_upgrade, is required for
those wishing to migrate data from any previous release.

Version 9.1 contains a number of changes that may affect compatibility
with previous releases. Observe the following incompatibilities:


* Change the default value of standard_conforming_strings to on
(Robert Haas)
By default, backslashes are now ordinary characters in string
literals, not escape characters. This change removes a
long-standing incompatibility with the SQL standard.
escape_string_warning has produced warnings about this usage for
years. E'' strings are the proper way to embed backslash escapes in
strings and are unaffected by this change.

This change can break applications that are not expecting it and do
their own string escaping according to the old rules. The consequences
could be as severe as introducing SQL-injection security holes. Be sure
to test applications that are exposed to untrusted input, to ensure
that they correctly handle single quotes and backslashes in text


* Disallow function-style and attribute-style data type casts for
composite types (Tom Lane)
For example, disallow composite_value.text and
text(composite_value). Unintentional uses of this syntax have
frequently resulted in bug reports; although it was not a bug, it
seems better to go back to rejecting such expressions. The CAST and
:: syntaxes are still available for use when a cast of an entire
composite value is actually intended.
* Tighten casting checks for domains based on arrays (Tom Lane)
When a domain is based on an array type, it is allowed to "look
through" the domain type to access the array elements, including
subscripting the domain value to fetch or assign an element.
Assignment to an element of such a domain value, for instance via
UPDATE ... SET domaincol[5] = ..., will now result in rechecking
the domain type's constraints, whereas before the checks were


* Change string_to_array() to return an empty array for a zero-length
string (Pavel Stehule)
Previously this returned a null value.
* Change string_to_array() so a NULL separator splits the string into
characters (Pavel Stehule)
Previously this returned a null value.

Object Modification

* Fix improper checks for before/after triggers (Tom Lane)
Triggers can now be fired in three cases: BEFORE, AFTER, or INSTEAD
OF some action. Trigger function authors should verify that their
logic behaves sanely in all three cases.
* Require superuser or CREATEROLE permissions in order to set
comments on roles (Tom Lane)

Server Settings

* Change pg_last_xlog_receive_location() so it never moves backwards
(Fujii Masao)
Previously, the value of pg_last_xlog_receive_location() could move
backward when streaming replication is restarted.
* Have logging of replication connections honor log_connections
(Magnus Hagander)
Previously, replication connections were always logged.

PL/pgSQL Server-Side Language

* Change PL/pgSQL's RAISE command without parameters to be catchable
by the attached exception block (Piyush Newe)
Previously RAISE in a code block was always scoped to an attached
exception block, so it was uncatchable at the same scope.
* Adjust PL/pgSQL's error line numbering code to be consistent with
other PLs (Pavel Stehule)
Previously, PL/pgSQL would ignore (not count) an empty line at the
start of the function body. Since this was inconsistent with all
other languages, the special case was removed.
* Make PL/pgSQL complain about conflicting IN and OUT parameter names
(Tom Lane)
Formerly, the collision was not detected, and the name would just
silently refer to only the OUT parameter.
* Type modifiers of PL/pgSQL variables are now visible to the SQL
parser (Tom Lane)
A type modifier (such as a varchar length limit) attached to a
PL/pgSQL variable was formerly enforced during assignments, but was
ignored for all other purposes. Such variables will now behave more
like table columns declared with the same modifier. This is not
expected to make any visible difference in most cases, but it could
result in subtle changes for some SQL commands issued by PL/pgSQL


* All contrib modules are now installed with "CREATE EXTENSION"
rather than by manually invoking their SQL scripts (Dimitri
Fontaine, Tom Lane)

Other Incompatibilities

* Make pg_stat_reset() reset all database-level statistics (Tomas
Some pg_stat_database counters were not being reset.
* Fix some information_schema.triggers column names to match the new
SQL-standard names (Dean Rasheed)
* Treat ECPG cursor names as case-insensitive (Zoltan Boszormenyi)


Below you will find a detailed account of the changes between
PostgreSQL 9.1 and the previous major release.



* Support unlogged tables using the UNLOGGED option in "CREATE TABLE"
(Robert Haas)
Such tables provide better update performance than regular tables,
but are not crash-safe: their contents are automatically cleared in
case of a server crash. Their contents do not propagate to
replication slaves, either.
* Allow FULL OUTER JOIN to be implemented as a hash join, and allow
either side of a LEFT OUTER JOIN or RIGHT OUTER JOIN to be hashed
(Tom Lane)
Previously FULL OUTER JOIN could only be implemented as a merge
join, and LEFT OUTER JOIN and RIGHT OUTER JOIN could hash only the
nullable side of the join. These changes provide additional query
optimization possibilities.
* Merge duplicate fsync requests (Robert Haas, Greg Smith)
This greatly improves performance under heavy write loads.
* Improve performance of commit_siblings (Greg Smith)
This allows the use of commit_siblings with less overhead.
* Reduce the memory requirement for large ispell dictionaries (Pavel
Stehule, Tom Lane)
* Avoid leaving data files open after "blind writes" (Alvaro Herrera)
This fixes scenarios in which backends might hold files open long
after they were deleted, preventing the kernel from reclaiming disk


* Allow inheritance table scans to return meaningfully-sorted results
(Greg Stark, Hans-Jurgen Schonig, Robert Haas, Tom Lane)
This allows better optimization of queries that use ORDER BY,
LIMIT, or MIN/MAX with inherited tables.
* Improve GIN index scan cost estimation (Teodor Sigaev)
* Improve cost estimation for aggregates and window functions (Tom


* Support host names and host suffixes (e.g. .example.com) in
"pg_hba.conf" (Peter Eisentraut)
Previously only host IP addresses and CIDR values were supported.
* Support the key word all in the host column of "pg_hba.conf" (Peter
Previously people used or ::/0 for this.
* Reject local lines in "pg_hba.conf" on platforms that don't support
Unix-socket connections (Magnus Hagander)
Formerly, such lines were silently ignored, which could be
surprising. This makes the behavior more like other unsupported
* Allow GSSAPI to be used to authenticate to servers via SSPI
(Christian Ullrich)
Specifically this allows Unix-based GSSAPI clients to do SSPI
authentication with Windows servers.
* ident authentication over local sockets is now known as peer
(Magnus Hagander)
The old term is still accepted for backward compatibility, but
since the two methods are fundamentally different, it seemed better
to adopt different names for them.
* Rewrite peer authentication to avoid use of credential control
messages (Tom Lane)
This change makes the peer authentication code simpler and
better-performing. However, it requires the platform to provide the
getpeereid function or an equivalent socket operation. So far as is
known, the only platform for which peer authentication worked
before and now will not is pre-5.0 NetBSD.


* Add details to the logging of restartpoints and checkpoints, which
is controlled by log_checkpoints (Fujii Masao, Greg Smith)
New details include WAL file and sync activity.
* Add log_file_mode which controls the permissions on log files
created by the logging collector (Martin Pihlak)
* Reduce the default maximum line length for syslog logging to 900
bytes plus prefixes (Noah Misch)
This avoids truncation of long log lines on syslog implementations
that have a 1KB length limit, rather than the more common 2KB.

Statistical Views

* Add client_hostname column to pg_stat_activity (Peter Eisentraut)
Previously only the client address was reported.
* Add pg_stat_xact_* statistics functions and views (Joel Jacobson)
These are like the database-wide statistics counter views, but
reflect counts for only the current transaction.
* Add time of last reset in database-level and background writer
statistics views (Tomas Vondra)
* Add columns showing the number of vacuum and analyze operations in
pg_stat_*_tables views (Magnus Hagander)
* Add buffers_backend_fsync column to pg_stat_bgwriter (Greg Smith)
This new column counts the number of times a backend fsyncs a

Server Settings

* Provide auto-tuning of wal_buffers (Greg Smith)
By default, the value of wal_buffers is now chosen automatically
based on the value of shared_buffers.
* Increase the maximum values for deadlock_timeout,
log_min_duration_statement, and log_autovacuum_min_duration (Peter
The maximum value for each of these parameters was previously only
about 35 minutes. Much larger values are now allowed.

Replication and Recovery

Streaming Replication and Continuous Archiving

* Allow synchronous replication (Simon Riggs, Fujii Masao)
This allows the primary server to wait for a standby to write a
transaction's information to disk before acknowledging the commit.
One standby at a time can take the role of the synchronous standby,
as controlled by the synchronous_standby_names setting. Synchronous
replication can be enabled or disabled on a per-transaction basis
using the synchronous_commit setting.
* Add protocol support for sending file system backups to standby
servers using the streaming replication network connection (Magnus
Hagander, Heikki Linnakangas)
This avoids the requirement of manually transferring a file system
backup when setting up a standby server.
* Add replication_timeout setting (Fujii Masao, Heikki Linnakangas)
Replication connections that are idle for more than the
replication_timeout interval will be terminated automatically.
Formerly, a failed connection was typically not detected until the
TCP timeout elapsed, which is inconveniently long in many
* Add command-line tool pg_basebackup for creating a new standby
server or database backup (Magnus Hagander)
* Add a replication permission for roles (Magnus Hagander)
This is a read-only permission used for streaming replication. It
allows a non-superuser role to be used for replication connections.
Previously only superusers could initiate replication connections;
superusers still have this permission by default.

Replication Monitoring

* Add system view pg_stat_replication which displays activity of WAL
sender processes (Itagaki Takahiro, Simon Riggs)
This reports the status of all connected standby servers.
* Add monitoring function pg_last_xact_replay_timestamp() (Fujii
This returns the time at which the primary generated the most
recent commit or abort record applied on the standby.

Hot Standby

* Add configuration parameter hot_standby_feedback to enable standbys
to postpone cleanup of old row versions on the primary (Simon
This helps avoid canceling long-running queries on the standby.
* Add the pg_stat_database_conflicts system view to show queries that
have been canceled and the reason (Magnus Hagander)
Cancellations can occur because of dropped tablespaces, lock
timeouts, old snapshots, pinned buffers, and deadlocks.
* Add a conflicts count to pg_stat_database (Magnus Hagander)
This is the number of conflicts that occurred in the database.
* Increase the maximum values for max_standby_archive_delay and
The maximum value for each of these parameters was previously only
about 35 minutes. Much larger values are now allowed.
* Add ERRCODE_T_R_DATABASE_DROPPED error code to report recovery
conflicts due to dropped databases (Tatsuo Ishii)
This is useful for connection pooling software.

Recovery Control

* Add functions to control streaming replication replay (Simon Riggs)
The new functions are pg_xlog_replay_pause(),
pg_xlog_replay_resume(), and the status function
* Add "recovery.conf" setting pause_at_recovery_target to pause
recovery at target (Simon Riggs)
This allows a recovery server to be queried to check whether the
recovery point is the one desired.
* Add the ability to create named restore points using
pg_create_restore_point() (Jaime Casanova)
These named restore points can be specified as recovery targets
using the new "recovery.conf" setting recovery_target_name.
* Allow standby recovery to switch to a new timeline automatically
(Heikki Linnakangas)
Now standby servers scan the archive directory for new timelines
* Add restart_after_crash setting which disables automatic server
restart after a backend crash (Robert Haas)
This allows external cluster management software to control whether
the database server restarts or not.
* Allow "recovery.conf" to use the same quoting behavior as
"postgresql.conf" (Dimitri Fontaine)
Previously all values had to be quoted.


* Add a true serializable isolation level (Kevin Grittner, Dan Ports)
Previously, asking for serializable isolation guaranteed only that
a single MVCC snapshot would be used for the entire transaction,
which allowed certain documented anomalies. The old snapshot
isolation behavior is still available by requesting the REPEATABLE
READ isolation level.
* Allow data-modification commands ("INSERT"/"UPDATE"/"DELETE") in
WITH clauses (Marko Tiikkaja, Hitoshi Harada)
These commands can use RETURNING to pass data up to the containing
* Allow WITH clauses to be attached to "INSERT", "UPDATE", "DELETE"
statements (Marko Tiikkaja, Hitoshi Harada)
* Allow non-GROUP BY columns in the query target list when the
primary key is specified in the GROUP BY clause (Peter Eisentraut)
The SQL standard allows this behavior, and because of the primary
key, the result is unambiguous.
* Allow use of the key word DISTINCT in UNION/INTERSECT/EXCEPT
clauses (Tom Lane)
DISTINCT is the default behavior so use of this key word is
redundant, but the SQL standard allows it.
* Fix ordinary queries with rules to use the same snapshot behavior
as "EXPLAIN ANALYZE" (Marko Tiikkaja)
Previously "EXPLAIN ANALYZE" used slightly different snapshot
timing for queries involving rules. The "EXPLAIN ANALYZE" behavior
was judged to be more logical.


* Add per-column collation support (Peter Eisentraut, Tom Lane)
Previously collation (the sort ordering of text strings) could only
be chosen at database creation. Collation can now be set per
column, domain, index, or expression, via the SQL-standard COLLATE

Object Manipulation

* Add extensions which simplify packaging of additions to PostgreSQL
(Dimitri Fontaine, Tom Lane)
Extensions are controlled by the new "CREATE"/"ALTER"/"DROP
EXTENSION" commands. This replaces ad-hoc methods of grouping
objects that are added to a PostgreSQL installation.
* Add support for foreign tables (Shigeru Hanada, Robert Haas, Jan
Urbanski, Heikki Linnakangas)
This allows data stored outside the database to be used like native
PostgreSQL-stored data. Foreign tables are currently read-only,
* Allow new values to be added to an existing enum type via "ALTER
TYPE" (Andrew Dunstan)
This allows modification of composite types.

ALTER Object

* Add RESTRICT/CASCADE to "ALTER TYPE" operations on typed tables
(Peter Eisentraut)
This controls ADD/DROP/ALTER/RENAME ATTRIBUTE cascading behavior.
* Support ALTER TABLE name {OF | NOT OF} type (Noah Misch)
This syntax allows a standalone table to be made into a typed
table, or a typed table to be made standalone.
* Add support for more object types in "ALTER ... SET SCHEMA"
commands (Dimitri Fontaine)
This command is now supported for conversions, operators, operator
classes, operator families, text search configurations, text search
dictionaries, text search parsers, and text search templates.


This allows a primary key or unique constraint to be defined using
an existing unique index, including a concurrently created unique
* Allow "ALTER TABLE" to add foreign keys without validation (Simon
The new option is called NOT VALID. The constraint's state can
later be modified to VALIDATED and validation checks performed.
Together these allow you to add a foreign key with minimal impact
on read and write operations.
* Allow "ALTER TABLE ... SET DATA TYPE" to avoid table rewrites in
appropriate cases (Noah Misch, Robert Haas)
For example, converting a varchar column to text no longer requires
a rewrite of the table. However, increasing the length constraint
on a varchar column still requires a table rewrite.
* Add "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS" syntax (Robert Haas)
This allows table creation without causing an error if the table
already exists.
* Fix possible "tuple concurrently updated" error when two backends
attempt to add an inheritance child to the same table at the same
time (Robert Haas)
"ALTER TABLE" now takes a stronger lock on the parent table, so
that the sessions cannot try to update it simultaneously.

Object Permissions

* Add a "SECURITY LABEL" command (KaiGai Kohei)
This allows security labels to be assigned to objects.

Utility Operations

* Add transaction-level advisory locks (Marko Tiikkaja)
These are similar to the existing session-level advisory locks, but
such locks are automatically released at transaction end.
* Make "TRUNCATE ... RESTART IDENTITY" restart sequences
transactionally (Steve Singer)
Previously the counter could have been left out of sync if a
backend crashed between the on-commit truncation activity and
commit completion.


* Add ENCODING option to "COPY TO/FROM" (Hitoshi Harada, Itagaki
This allows the encoding of the "COPY" file to be specified
separately from client encoding.
* Add bidirectional "COPY" protocol support (Fujii Masao)
This is currently only used by streaming replication.


* Make "EXPLAIN VERBOSE" show the function call expression in a
FunctionScan node (Tom Lane)


* Add additional details to the output of "VACUUM FULL VERBOSE" and
"CLUSTER VERBOSE" (Itagaki Takahiro)
New information includes the live and dead tuple count and whether
"CLUSTER" is using an index to rebuild.
* Prevent autovacuum from waiting if it cannot acquire a table lock
(Robert Haas)
It will try to vacuum that table later.


* Allow "CLUSTER" to sort the table rather than scanning the index
when it seems likely to be cheaper (Leonardo Francalanci)


* Add nearest-neighbor (order-by-operator) searching to GiST indexes
(Teodor Sigaev, Tom Lane)
This allows GiST indexes to quickly return the "N" closest values
in a query with LIMIT. For example
SELECT * FROM places ORDER BY location <-> point '(101,456)' LIMIT 10;
finds the ten places closest to a given target point.
* Allow GIN indexes to index null and empty values (Tom Lane)
This allows full GIN index scans, and fixes various corner cases in
which GIN scans would fail.
* Allow GIN indexes to better recognize duplicate search entries (Tom
This reduces the cost of index scans, especially in cases where it
avoids unnecessary full index scans.
* Fix GiST indexes to be fully crash-safe (Heikki Linnakangas)
Previously there were rare cases where a "REINDEX" would be
required (you would be informed).

Data Types

* Allow numeric to use a more compact, two-byte header in common
cases (Robert Haas)
Previously all numeric values had four-byte headers; this change
saves on disk storage.
* Add support for dividing money by money (Andy Balholm)
* Allow binary I/O on type void (Radoslaw Smogura)
* Improve hypotenuse calculations for geometric operators (Paul
This avoids unnecessary overflows, and may also be more accurate.
* Support hashing array values (Tom Lane)
This provides additional query optimization possibilities.
* Don't treat a composite type as sortable unless all its column
types are sortable (Tom Lane)
This avoids possible "could not identify a comparison function"
failures at runtime, if it is possible to implement the query
without sorting. Also, "ANALYZE" won't try to use inappropriate
statistics-gathering methods for columns of such composite types.


* Add support for casting between money and numeric (Andy Balholm)
* Add support for casting from int4 and int8 to money (Joey Adams)
* Allow casting a table's row type to the table's supertype if it's a
typed table (Peter Eisentraut)
This is analogous to the existing facility that allows casting a
row type to a supertable's row type.


* Add XML function XMLEXISTS and xpath_exists() functions (Mike
These are used for XPath matching.
* Add XML functions xml_is_well_formed(),
xml_is_well_formed_document(), xml_is_well_formed_content() (Mike
These check whether the input is properly-formed XML. They provide
functionality that was previously available only in the deprecated
"contrib/xml2" module.


* Add SQL function format(text, ...), which behaves analogously to
C's printf() (Pavel Stehule, Robert Haas)
It currently supports formats for strings, SQL literals, and SQL
* Add string functions concat(), concat_ws(), left(), right(), and
reverse() (Pavel Stehule)
These improve compatibility with other database products.
* Add function pg_read_binary_file() to read binary files (Dimitri
Fontaine, Itagaki Takahiro)
* Add a single-parameter version of function pg_read_file() to read
an entire file (Dimitri Fontaine, Itagaki Takahiro)
* Add three-parameter forms of array_to_string() and
string_to_array() for null value processing control (Pavel Stehule)

Object Information Functions

* Add the pg_describe_object() function (Alvaro Herrera)
This function is used to obtain a human-readable string describing
an object, based on the pg_class OID, object OID, and sub-object
ID. It can be used to help interpret the contents of pg_depend.
* Update comments for built-in operators and their underlying
functions (Tom Lane)
Functions that are meant to be used via an associated operator are
now commented as such.
* Add variable quote_all_identifiers to force the quoting of all
identifiers in "EXPLAIN" and in system catalog functions like
pg_get_viewdef() (Robert Haas)
This makes exporting schemas to tools and other databases with
different quoting rules easier.
* Add columns to the information_schema.sequences system view (Peter
Previously, though the view existed, the columns about the sequence
parameters were unimplemented.
* Allow public as a pseudo-role name in has_table_privilege() and
related functions (Alvaro Herrera)
This allows checking for public permissions.

Function and Trigger Creation

* Support INSTEAD OF triggers on views (Dean Rasheed)
This feature can be used to implement fully updatable views.

Server-Side Languages

PL/pgSQL Server-Side Language

* Add "FOREACH IN ARRAY" to PL/pgSQL (Pavel Stehule)
This is more efficient and readable than previous methods of
iterating through the elements of an array value.
* Allow "RAISE" without parameters to be caught in the same places
that could catch a "RAISE ERROR" from the same location (Piyush
The previous coding threw the error from the block containing the
active exception handler. The new behavior is more consistent with
other DBMS products.

PL/Perl Server-Side Language

* Allow generic record arguments to PL/Perl functions (Andrew
PL/Perl functions can now be declared to accept type record. The
behavior is the same as for any named composite type.
* Convert PL/Perl array arguments to Perl arrays (Alexey Klyukin,
Alex Hunsaker)
String representations are still available.
* Convert PL/Perl composite-type arguments to Perl hashes (Alexey
Klyukin, Alex Hunsaker)
String representations are still available.

PL/Python Server-Side Language

* Add table function support for PL/Python (Jan Urbanski)
PL/Python can now return multiple OUT parameters and record sets.
* Add a validator to PL/Python (Jan Urbanski)
This allows PL/Python functions to be syntax-checked at function
creation time.
* Allow exceptions for SQL queries in PL/Python (Jan Urbanski)
This allows access to SQL-generated exception error codes from
PL/Python exception blocks.
* Add explicit subtransactions to PL/Python (Jan Urbanski)
* Add PL/Python functions for quoting strings (Jan Urbanski)
These functions are plpy.quote_ident, plpy.quote_literal, and
* Add traceback information to PL/Python errors (Jan Urbanski)
* Report PL/Python errors from iterators with PLy_elog (Jan Urbanski)
* Fix exception handling with Python 3 (Jan Urbanski)
Exception classes were previously not available in plpy under
Python 3.

Client Applications

* Mark createlang and droplang as deprecated now that they just
invoke extension commands (Tom Lane)


* Add psql command \conninfo to show current connection information
(David Christensen)
* Add psql command \sf to show a function's definition (Pavel
* Add psql command \dL to list languages (Fernando Ike)
* Add the "S" ("system") option to psql's \dn (list schemas) command
(Tom Lane)
\dn without S now suppresses system schemas.
* Allow psql's \e and \ef commands to accept a line number to be used
to position the cursor in the editor (Pavel Stehule)
This is passed to the editor according to the
PSQL_EDITOR_LINENUMBER_ARG environment variable.
* Have psql set the client encoding from the operating system locale
by default (Heikki Linnakangas)
This only happens if the PGCLIENTENCODING environment variable is
not set.
* Make \d distinguish between unique indexes and unique constraints
(Josh Kupershmidt)
* Make \dt+ report pg_table_size instead of pg_relation_size when
talking to 9.0 or later servers (Bernd Helmle)
This is a more useful measure of table size, but note that it is
not identical to what was previously reported in the same display.
* Additional tab completion support (Itagaki Takahiro, Pavel Stehule,
Andrey Popp, Christoph Berg, David Fetter, Josh Kupershmidt)


* Add pg_dump and pg_dumpall option "--quote-all-identifiers" to
force quoting of all identifiers (Robert Haas)
* Add directory format to pg_dump (Joachim Wieland, Heikki
This is internally similar to the tar pg_dump format.


* Fix pg_ctl so it no longer incorrectly reports that the server is
not running (Bruce Momjian)
Previously this could happen if the server was running but pg_ctl
could not authenticate.
* Improve pg_ctl start's "wait" ("-w") option (Bruce Momjian, Tom
The wait mode is now significantly more robust. It will not get
confused by non-default postmaster port numbers, non-default
Unix-domain socket locations, permission problems, or stale
postmaster lock files.
* Add promote option to pg_ctl to switch a standby server to primary
(Fujii Masao)

Development Tools


* Add a libpq connection option client_encoding which behaves like
the PGCLIENTENCODING environment variable (Heikki Linnakangas)
The value auto sets the client encoding based on the operating
system locale.
* Add PQlibVersion() function which returns the libpq library version
(Magnus Hagander)
libpq already had PQserverVersion() which returns the server
* Allow libpq-using clients to check the user name of the server
process when connecting via Unix-domain sockets, with the new
requirepeer connection option (Peter Eisentraut)
PostgreSQL already allowed servers to check the client user name
when connecting via Unix-domain sockets.
* Add PQping() and PQpingParams() to libpq (Bruce Momjian, Tom Lane)
These functions allow detection of the server's status without
trying to open a new session.


* Allow ECPG to accept dynamic cursor names even in WHERE CURRENT OF
clauses (Zoltan Boszormenyi)
* Make ecpglib write double values with a precision of 15 digits, not
14 as formerly (Akira Kurosawa)

Build Options

* Use +Olibmerrno compile flag with HP-UX C compilers that accept it
(Ibrar Ahmed)
This avoids possible misbehavior of math library calls on recent HP


* Improved parallel make support (Peter Eisentraut)
This allows for faster compiles. Also, make -k now works more
* Require GNU make 3.80 or newer (Peter Eisentraut)
This is necessary because of the parallel-make improvements.
* Add make maintainer-check target (Peter Eisentraut)
This target performs various source code checks that are not
appropriate for either the build or the regression tests.
Currently: duplicate_oids, SGML syntax and tabs check, NLS syntax
* Support make check in "contrib" (Peter Eisentraut)
Formerly only make installcheck worked, but now there is support
for testing in a temporary installation. The top-level make
check-world target now includes testing "contrib" this way.


* On Windows, allow pg_ctl to register the service as auto-start or
start-on-demand (Quan Zongliang)
* Add support for collecting crash dumps on Windows (Craig Ringer,
Magnus Hagander)
minidumps can now be generated by non-debug Windows binaries and
analyzed by standard debugging tools.
* Enable building with the MinGW64 compiler (Andrew Dunstan)
This allows building 64-bit Windows binaries even on non-Windows
platforms via cross-compiling.

Source Code

* Revise the API for GUC variable assign hooks (Tom Lane)
The previous functions of assign hooks are now split between check
hooks and assign hooks, where the former can fail but the latter
shouldn't. This change will impact add-on modules that define
custom GUC parameters.
* Add latches to the source code to support waiting for events
(Heikki Linnakangas)
* Centralize data modification permissions-checking logic (KaiGai
* Add missing get_object_oid() functions, for consistency (Robert
* Improve ability to use C++ compilers for compiling add-on modules
by removing conflicting key words (Tom Lane)
* Add support for DragonFly BSD (Rumko)
* Expose quote_literal_cstr() for backend use (Robert Haas)
* Run regression tests in the default encoding (Peter Eisentraut)
Regression tests were previously always run with SQL_ASCII
* Add src/tools/git_changelog to replace cvs2cl and pgcvslog (Robert
Haas, Tom Lane)
* Add git-external-diff script to "src/tools" (Bruce Momjian)
This is used to generate context diffs from git.
* Improve support for building with Clang (Peter Eisentraut)

Server Hooks

* Add source code hooks to check permissions (Robert Haas, Stephen
* Add post-object-creation function hooks for use by security
frameworks (KaiGai Kohei)
* Add a client authentication hook (KaiGai Kohei)


* Modify "contrib" modules and procedural languages to install via
the new extension mechanism (Tom Lane, Dimitri Fontaine)
* Add "contrib/file_fdw" foreign-data wrapper (Shigeru Hanada)
Foreign tables using this foreign data wrapper can read flat files
in a manner very similar to "COPY".
* Add nearest-neighbor search support to "contrib/pg_trgm" and
"contrib/btree_gist" (Teodor Sigaev)
* Add "contrib/btree_gist" support for searching on not-equals (Jeff
* Fix "contrib/fuzzystrmatch"'s levenshtein() function to handle
multibyte characters (Alexander Korotkov)
* Add ssl_cipher() and ssl_version() functions to "contrib/sslinfo"
(Robert Haas)
* Fix "contrib/intarray" and "contrib/hstore" to give consistent
results with indexed empty arrays (Tom Lane)
Previously an empty-array query that used an index might return
different results from one that used a sequential scan.
* Allow "contrib/intarray" to work properly on multidimensional
arrays (Tom Lane)
* In "contrib/intarray", avoid errors complaining about the presence
of nulls in cases where no nulls are actually present (Tom Lane)
* In "contrib/intarray", fix behavior of containment operators with
respect to empty arrays (Tom Lane)
Empty arrays are now correctly considered to be contained in any
other array.
* Remove "contrib/xml2"'s arbitrary limit on the number of
"parameter"="value" pairs that can be handled by xslt_process()
(Pavel Stehule)
The previous limit was 10.
* In "contrib/pageinspect", fix heap_page_item to return infomasks as
32-bit values (Alvaro Herrera)
This avoids returning negative values, which was confusing. The
underlying value is a 16-bit unsigned integer.


* Add "contrib/sepgsql" to interface permission checks with SELinux
(KaiGai Kohei)
This uses the new "SECURITY LABEL" facility.
* Add contrib module "auth_delay" (KaiGai Kohei)
This causes the server to pause before returning authentication
failure; it is designed to make brute force password attacks more
* Add "dummy_seclabel" contrib module (KaiGai Kohei)
This is used for permission regression testing.


* Add support for LIKE and ILIKE index searches to "contrib/pg_trgm"
(Alexander Korotkov)
* Add levenshtein_less_equal() function to "contrib/fuzzystrmatch",
which is optimized for small distances (Alexander Korotkov)
* Improve performance of index lookups on "contrib/seg" columns
(Alexander Korotkov)
* Improve performance of pg_upgrade for databases with many relations
(Bruce Momjian)
* Add flag to "contrib/pgbench" to report per-statement latencies
(Florian Pflug)

Fsync Testing

* Move "src/tools/test_fsync" to "contrib/pg_test_fsync" (Bruce
Momjian, Tom Lane)
* Add O_DIRECT support to "contrib/pg_test_fsync" (Bruce Momjian)
This matches the use of O_DIRECT by wal_sync_method.
* Add new tests to "contrib/pg_test_fsync" (Bruce Momjian)


* Extensive ECPG documentation improvements (Satoshi Nagayasu)
* Extensive proofreading and documentation improvements (Thom Brown,
Josh Kupershmidt, Susanne Ebrecht)
* Add documentation for exit_on_error (Robert Haas)
This parameter causes sessions to exit on any error.
* Add documentation for pg_options_to_table() (Josh Berkus)
This function shows table storage options in a readable form.
* Document that it is possible to access all composite type fields
using (compositeval).* syntax (Peter Eisentraut)
* Document that translate() removes characters in from that don't
have a corresponding to character (Josh Kupershmidt)
* Merge documentation for "CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER" and "CREATE
TRIGGER" (Alvaro Herrera)
* Centralize permission and upgrade documentation (Bruce Momjian)
* Add kernel tuning documentation for Solaris 10 (Josh Berkus)
Previously only Solaris 9 kernel tuning was documented.
* Handle non-ASCII characters consistently in "HISTORY" file (Peter
While the "HISTORY" file is in English, we do have to deal with
non-ASCII letters in contributor names. These are now
transliterated so that they are reasonably legible without
assumptions about character set.


投稿者 xml-rpc : 2011年9月13日 16:06
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