2010年9月21日

[installer 2511] postgresql-9.0.0

postgresql-9.0.0 出ています。

☆ postgresql-9.0.0
http://www.postgresql.org/
ftp://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.0.0/postgresql-9.0.0.tar.gz

Release 9.0

Release date: 2010-09-20
__________________________________________________________________

Overview

This release of PostgreSQL adds features that have been requested for
years, such as easy-to-use replication, a mass permission-changing
facility, and anonymous code blocks. While past major releases have
been conservative in their scope, this release shows a bold new desire
to provide facilities that new and existing users of PostgreSQL will
embrace. This has all been done with few incompatibilities. Major
enhancements include:

* Built-in replication based on log shipping. This advance consists
of two features: Streaming Replication, allowing continuous archive
(WAL) files to be streamed over a network connection to a standby
server, and Hot Standby, allowing continuous archive standby
servers to execute read-only queries. The net effect is to support
a single master with multiple read-only slave servers.
* Easier database object permissions management. "GRANT"/"REVOKE IN
SCHEMA" supports mass permissions changes on existing objects,
while "ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES" allows control of privileges for
objects created in the future. Large objects (BLOBs) now support
permissions management as well.
* Broadly enhanced stored procedure support. The "DO" statement
supports ad-hoc or "anonymous" code blocks. Functions can now be
called using named parameters. PL/pgSQL is now installed by
default, and PL/Perl and PL/Python have been enhanced in several
ways, including support for Python3.
* Full support for 64-bit Windows.
* More advanced reporting queries, including additional windowing
options (PRECEDING and FOLLOWING) and the ability to control the
order in which values are fed to aggregate functions.
* New trigger features, including SQL-standard-compliant per-column
triggers and conditional trigger execution.
* Deferrable unique constraints. Mass updates to unique keys are now
possible without trickery.
* Exclusion constraints. These provide a generalized version of
unique constraints, allowing enforcement of complex conditions.
* New and enhanced security features, including RADIUS
authentication, LDAP authentication improvements, and a new contrib
module "passwordcheck" for testing password strength.
* New high-performance implementation of the "LISTEN"/"NOTIFY"
feature. Pending events are now stored in a memory-based queue
rather than a table. Also, a "payload" string can be sent with each
event, rather than transmitting just an event name as before.
* New implementation of "VACUUM FULL". This command now rewrites the
entire table and indexes, rather than moving individual rows to
compact space. It is substantially faster in most cases, and no
longer results in index bloat.
* New contrib module "pg_upgrade" to support in-place upgrades from
8.3 or 8.4 to 9.0.
* Multiple performance enhancements for specific types of queries,
including elimination of unnecessary joins. This helps optimize
some automatically-generated queries, such as those produced by
object-relational mappers (ORMs).
* "EXPLAIN" enhancements. The output is now available in JSON, XML,
or YAML format, and includes buffer utilization and other data not
previously available.
* "hstore" improvements, including new functions and greater data
capacity.

The above items are explained in more detail in the sections below.
__________________________________________________________________

Migration to Version 9.0

A dump/restore using pg_dump, or use of pg_upgrade, is required for
those wishing to migrate data from any previous release.

Version 9.0 contains a number of changes that selectively break
backwards compatibility in order to support new features and code
quality improvements. In particular, users who make extensive use of
PL/pgSQL, Point-In-Time Recovery (PITR), or Warm Standby should test
their applications because of slight user-visible changes in those
areas. Observe the following incompatibilities:
__________________________________________________________________

Server Settings

* Remove server parameter add_missing_from, which was defaulted to
off for many years (Tom Lane)
* Remove server parameter regex_flavor, which was defaulted to
advanced for many years (Tom Lane)
* archive_mode now only affects archive_command; a new setting,
wal_level, affects the contents of the write-ahead log (Heikki
Linnakangas)
* log_temp_files now uses default file size units of kilobytes
(Robert Haas)
__________________________________________________________________

Queries

* When querying a parent table, do not do any separate permission
checks on child tables scanned as part of the query (Peter
Eisentraut)
The SQL standard specifies this behavior, and it is also much more
convenient in practice than the former behavior of checking
permissions on each child as well as the parent.
__________________________________________________________________

Data Types

* bytea output now appears in hex format by default (Peter
Eisentraut)
The server parameter bytea_output can be used to select the
traditional output format if needed for compatibility.
* Array input now considers only plain ASCII whitespace characters to
be potentially ignorable; it will never ignore non-ASCII
characters, even if they are whitespace according to some locales
(Tom Lane)
This avoids some corner cases where array values could be
interpreted differently depending on the server's locale settings.
* Improve standards compliance of SIMILAR TO patterns and SQL-style
substring() patterns (Tom Lane)
This includes treating ? and {...} as pattern metacharacters, while
they were simple literal characters before; that corresponds to new
features added in SQL:2008. Also, ^ and $ are now treated as simple
literal characters; formerly they were treated as metacharacters,
as if the pattern were following POSIX rather than SQL rules. Also,
in SQL-standard substring(), use of parentheses for nesting no
longer interferes with capturing of a substring. Also, processing
of bracket expressions (character classes) is now more
standards-compliant.
* Reject negative length values in 3-parameter substring() for bit
strings, per the SQL standard (Tom Lane)
* Make date_trunc truncate rather than round when reducing precision
of fractional seconds (Tom Lane)
The code always acted this way for integer-based dates/times. Now
float-based dates/times behave similarly.
__________________________________________________________________

Object Renaming

* Tighten enforcement of column name consistency during "RENAME" when
a child table inherits the same column from multiple unrelated
parents (KaiGai Kohei)
* No longer automatically rename indexes and index columns when the
underlying table columns are renamed (Tom Lane)
Administrators can still rename such indexes and columns manually.
This change will require an update of the JDBC driver, and possibly
other drivers, so that unique indexes are correctly recognized
after a rename.
* "CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION" can no longer change the declared
names of function parameters (Pavel Stehule)
In order to avoid creating ambiguity in named-parameter calls, it
is no longer allowed to change the aliases for input parameters in
the declaration of an existing function (although names can still
be assigned to previously unnamed parameters). You now have to
"DROP" and recreate the function to do that.
__________________________________________________________________

PL/pgSQL

* PL/pgSQL now throws an error if a variable name conflicts with a
column name used in a query (Tom Lane)
The former behavior was to bind ambiguous names to PL/pgSQL
variables in preference to query columns, which often resulted in
surprising misbehavior. Throwing an error allows easy detection of
ambiguous situations. Although it's recommended that functions
encountering this type of error be modified to remove the conflict,
the old behavior can be restored if necessary via the configuration
parameter plpgsql.variable_conflict, or via the per-function option
#variable_conflict.
* PL/pgSQL no longer allows variable names that match certain SQL
reserved words (Tom Lane)
This is a consequence of aligning the PL/pgSQL parser to match the
core SQL parser more closely. If necessary, variable names can be
double-quoted to avoid this restriction.
* PL/pgSQL now requires columns of composite results to match the
expected type modifier as well as base type (Pavel Stehule, Tom
Lane)
For example, if a column of the result type is declared as
NUMERIC(30,2), it is no longer acceptable to return a NUMERIC of
some other precision in that column. Previous versions neglected to
check the type modifier and would thus allow result rows that
didn't actually conform to the declared restrictions.
* PL/pgSQL now treats selection into composite fields more
consistently (Tom Lane)
Formerly, a statement like SELECT ... INTO rec.fld FROM ... was
treated as a scalar assignment even if the record field "fld" was
of composite type. Now it is treated as a record assignment, the
same as when the INTO target is a regular variable of composite
type. So the values to be assigned to the field's subfields should
be written as separate columns of the "SELECT" list, not as a
ROW(...) construct as in previous versions.
If you need to do this in a way that will work in both 9.0 and
previous releases, you can write something like rec.fld := ROW(...)
FROM ....
* Remove PL/pgSQL's RENAME declaration (Tom Lane)
Instead of RENAME, use ALIAS, which can now create an alias for any
variable, not only dollar sign parameter names (such as $1) as
before.
__________________________________________________________________

Other Incompatibilities

* Deprecate use of => as an operator name (Robert Haas)
Future versions of PostgreSQL will probably reject this operator
name entirely, in order to support the SQL-standard notation for
named function parameters. For the moment, it is still allowed, but
a warning is emitted when such an operator is defined.
* Remove support for platforms that don't have a working 64-bit
integer data type (Tom Lane)
It is believed all still-supported platforms have working 64-bit
integer data types.
__________________________________________________________________

Changes

Version 9.0 has an unprecedented number of new major features, and over
200 enhancements, improvements, new commands, new functions, and other
changes.
__________________________________________________________________

Server

Continuous Archiving and Streaming Replication

PostgreSQL's existing standby-server capability has been expanded both
to support read-only queries on standby servers and to greatly reduce
the lag between master and standby servers. For many users, this will
be a useful and low-administration form of replication, either for high
availability or for horizontal scalability.

* Allow a standby server to accept read-only queries (Simon Riggs,
Heikki Linnakangas)
This feature is called Hot Standby. There are new "postgresql.conf"
and "recovery.conf" settings to control this feature, as well as
extensive documentation.
* Allow write-ahead log (WAL) data to be streamed to a standby server
(Fujii Masao, Heikki Linnakangas)
This feature is called Streaming Replication. Previously WAL data
could be sent to standby servers only in units of entire WAL files
(normally 16 megabytes each). Streaming Replication eliminates this
inefficiency and allows updates on the master to be propagated to
standby servers with very little delay. There are new
"postgresql.conf" and "recovery.conf" settings to control this
feature, as well as extensive documentation.
* Add pg_last_xlog_receive_location() and
pg_last_xlog_replay_location(), which can be used to monitor
standby server WAL activity (Simon Riggs, Fujii Masao, Heikki
Linnakangas)
__________________________________________________________________

Performance

* Allow per-tablespace values to be set for sequential and random
page cost estimates (seq_page_cost/random_page_cost) via "ALTER
TABLESPACE ... SET/RESET" (Robert Haas)
* Improve performance and reliability of EvalPlanQual rechecks in
join queries (Tom Lane)
"UPDATE", "DELETE", and "SELECT FOR UPDATE/SHARE" queries that
involve joins will now behave much better when encountering
freshly-updated rows.
* Improve performance of "TRUNCATE" when the table was created or
truncated earlier in the same transaction (Tom Lane)
* Improve performance of finding inheritance child tables (Tom Lane)
__________________________________________________________________

Optimizer

* Remove unnecessary outer joins (Robert Haas)
Outer joins where the inner side is unique and not referenced above
the join are unnecessary and are therefore now removed. This will
accelerate many automatically generated queries, such as those
created by object-relational mappers (ORMs).
* Allow IS NOT NULL restrictions to use indexes (Tom Lane)
This is particularly useful for finding MAX()/MIN() values in
indexes that contain many null values.
* Improve the optimizer's choices about when to use materialize
nodes, and when to use sorting versus hashing for DISTINCT (Tom
Lane)
* Improve the optimizer's equivalence detection for expressions
involving boolean <> operators (Tom Lane)
__________________________________________________________________

GEQO

* Use the same random seed every time GEQO plans a query (Andres
Freund)
While the Genetic Query Optimizer (GEQO) still selects random
plans, it now always selects the same random plans for identical
queries, thus giving more consistent performance. You can modify
geqo_seed to experiment with alternative plans.
* Improve GEQO plan selection (Tom Lane)
This avoids the rare error "failed to make a valid plan", and
should also improve planning speed.
__________________________________________________________________

Optimizer Statistics

* Improve "ANALYZE" to support inheritance-tree statistics (Tom Lane)
This is particularly useful for partitioned tables. However,
autovacuum does not yet automatically re-analyze parent tables when
child tables change.
* Improve autovacuum's detection of when re-analyze is necessary (Tom
Lane)
* Improve optimizer's estimation for greater/less-than comparisons
(Tom Lane)
When looking up statistics for greater/less-than comparisons, if
the comparison value is in the first or last histogram bucket, use
an index (if available) to fetch the current actual column minimum
or maximum. This greatly improves the accuracy of estimates for
comparison values near the ends of the data range, particularly if
the range is constantly changing due to addition of new data.
* Allow setting of number-of-distinct-values statistics using "ALTER
TABLE" (Robert Haas)
This allows users to override the estimated number or percentage of
distinct values for a column. This statistic is normally computed
by "ANALYZE", but the estimate can be poor, especially on tables
with very large numbers of rows.
__________________________________________________________________

Authentication

* Add support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
authentication (Magnus Hagander)
* Allow LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) authentication
to operate in "search/bind" mode (Robert Fleming, Magnus Hagander)
This allows the user to be looked up first, then the system uses
the DN (Distinguished Name) returned for that user.
* Add samehost and samenet designations to "pg_hba.conf" (Stef
Walter)
These match the server's IP address and subnet address
respectively.
* Pass trusted SSL root certificate names to the client so the client
can return an appropriate client certificate (Craig Ringer)
__________________________________________________________________

Monitoring

* Add the ability for clients to set an application name, which is
displayed in pg_stat_activity (Dave Page)
This allows administrators to characterize database traffic and
troubleshoot problems by source application.
* Add a SQLSTATE option (%e) to log_line_prefix (Guillaume Smet)
This allows users to compile statistics on errors and messages by
error code number.
* Write to the Windows event log in UTF16 encoding (Itagaki Takahiro)
Now there is true multilingual support for PostgreSQL log messages
on Windows.
__________________________________________________________________

Statistics Counters

* Add pg_stat_reset_shared('bgwriter') to reset the cluster-wide
shared statistics for the background writer (Greg Smith)
* Add pg_stat_reset_single_table_counters() and
pg_stat_reset_single_function_counters() to allow resetting the
statistics counters for individual tables and functions (Magnus
Hagander)
__________________________________________________________________

Server Settings

* Allow setting of configuration parameters based on database/role
combinations (Alvaro Herrera)
Previously only per-database and per-role settings were possible,
not combinations. All role and database settings are now stored in
the new pg_db_role_setting system catalog. A new psql command \drds
shows these settings. The legacy system views pg_roles, pg_shadow,
and pg_user do not show combination settings, and therefore no
longer completely represent the configuration for a user or
database.
* Add server parameter bonjour, which controls whether a
Bonjour-enabled server advertises itself via Bonjour (Tom Lane)
The default is off, meaning it does not advertise. This allows
packagers to distribute Bonjour-enabled builds without worrying
that individual users might not want the feature.
* Add server parameter enable_material, which controls the use of
materialize nodes in the optimizer (Robert Haas)
The default is on. When off, the optimizer will not add materialize
nodes purely for performance reasons, though they will still be
used when necessary for correctness.
* Change server parameter log_temp_files to use default file size
units of kilobytes (Robert Haas)
Previously this setting was interpreted in bytes if no units were
specified.
* Log changes of parameter values when "postgresql.conf" is reloaded
(Peter Eisentraut)
This lets administrators and security staff audit changes of
database settings, and is also very convenient for checking the
effects of "postgresql.conf" edits.
* Properly enforce superuser permissions for custom server parameters
(Tom Lane)
Non-superusers can no longer issue "ALTER ROLE"/"DATABASE SET" for
parameters that are not currently known to the server. This allows
the server to correctly check that superuser-only parameters are
only set by superusers. Previously, the SET would be allowed and
then ignored at session start, making superuser-only custom
parameters much less useful than they should be.
__________________________________________________________________

Queries

* Perform "SELECT FOR UPDATE"/SHARE processing after applying LIMIT,
so the number of rows returned is always predictable (Tom Lane)
Previously, changes made by concurrent transactions could cause a
"SELECT FOR UPDATE" to unexpectedly return fewer rows than
specified by its LIMIT. FOR UPDATE in combination with ORDER BY can
still produce surprising results, but that can be corrected by
placing FOR UPDATE in a subquery.
* Allow mixing of traditional and SQL-standard LIMIT/OFFSET syntax
(Tom Lane)
* Extend the supported frame options in window functions (Hitoshi
Harada)
Frames can now start with CURRENT ROW, and the ROWS n
PRECEDING/FOLLOWING options are now supported.
* Make "SELECT INTO" and "CREATE TABLE AS" return row counts to the
client in their command tags (Boszormenyi Zoltan)
This can save an entire round-trip to the client, allowing result
counts and pagination to be calculated without an additional
"COUNT" query.
__________________________________________________________________

Unicode Strings

* Support Unicode surrogate pairs (dual 16-bit representation) in U&
strings and identifiers (Peter Eisentraut)
* Support Unicode escapes in E'...' strings (Marko Kreen)
__________________________________________________________________

Object Manipulation

* Speed up "CREATE DATABASE" by deferring flushes to disk (Andres
Freund, Greg Stark)
* Allow comments on columns of tables, views, and composite types
only, not other relation types such as indexes and TOAST tables
(Tom Lane)
* Allow the creation of enumerated types containing no values (Bruce
Momjian)
* Let values of columns having storage type MAIN remain on the main
heap page unless the row cannot fit on a page (Kevin Grittner)
Previously MAIN values were forced out to TOAST tables until the
row size was less than one-quarter of the page size.
__________________________________________________________________

ALTER TABLE

* Implement IF EXISTS for ALTER TABLE DROP COLUMN and ALTER TABLE
DROP CONSTRAINT (Andres Freund)
* Allow "ALTER TABLE" commands that rewrite tables to skip WAL
logging (Itagaki Takahiro)
Such operations either produce a new copy of the table or are
rolled back, so WAL archiving can be skipped, unless running in
continuous archiving mode. This reduces I/O overhead and improves
performance.
* Fix failure of ALTER TABLE table ADD COLUMN col serial when done by
non-owner of table (Tom Lane)
__________________________________________________________________

CREATE TABLE

* Add support for copying COMMENTS and STORAGE settings in "CREATE
TABLE ... LIKE" commands (Itagaki Takahiro)
* Add a shortcut for copying all properties in "CREATE TABLE ...
LIKE" commands (Itagaki Takahiro)
* Add the SQL-standard CREATE TABLE ... OF type command (Peter
Eisentraut)
This allows creation of a table that matches an existing composite
type. Additional constraints and defaults can be specified in the
command.
__________________________________________________________________

Constraints

* Add deferrable unique constraints (Dean Rasheed)
This allows mass updates, such as UPDATE tab SET col = col + 1, to
work reliably on columns that have unique indexes or are marked as
primary keys. If the constraint is specified as DEFERRABLE it will
be checked at the end of the statement, rather than after each row
is updated. The constraint check can also be deferred until the end
of the current transaction, allowing such updates to be spread over
multiple SQL commands.
* Add exclusion constraints (Jeff Davis)
Exclusion constraints generalize uniqueness constraints by allowing
arbitrary comparison operators, not just equality. They are created
with the "CREATE TABLE CONSTRAINT ... EXCLUDE" clause. The most
common use of exclusion constraints is to specify that column
entries must not overlap, rather than simply not be equal. This is
useful for time periods and other ranges, as well as arrays. This
feature enhances checking of data integrity for many calendaring,
time-management, and scientific applications.
* Improve uniqueness-constraint violation error messages to report
the values causing the failure (Itagaki Takahiro)
For example, a uniqueness constraint violation might now report Key
(x)=(2) already exists.
__________________________________________________________________

Object Permissions

* Add the ability to make mass permission changes across a whole
schema using the new "GRANT"/"REVOKE IN SCHEMA" clause (Petr
Jelinek)
This simplifies management of object permissions and makes it
easier to utilize database roles for application data security.
* Add "ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES" command to control privileges of
objects created later (Petr Jelinek)
This greatly simplifies the assignment of object privileges in a
complex database application. Default privileges can be set for
tables, views, sequences, and functions. Defaults may be assigned
on a per-schema basis, or database-wide.
* Add the ability to control large object (BLOB) permissions with
"GRANT"/"REVOKE" (KaiGai Kohei)
Formerly, any database user could read or modify any large object.
Read and write permissions can now be granted and revoked per large
object, and the ownership of large objects is tracked.
__________________________________________________________________

Utility Operations

* Make "LISTEN"/"NOTIFY" store pending events in a memory queue,
rather than in a system table (Joachim Wieland)
This substantially improves performance, while retaining the
existing features of transactional support and guaranteed delivery.
* Allow "NOTIFY" to pass an optional "payload" string to listeners
(Joachim Wieland)
This greatly improves the usefulness of "LISTEN"/"NOTIFY" as a
general-purpose event queue system.
* Allow "CLUSTER" on all per-database system catalogs (Tom Lane)
Shared catalogs still cannot be clustered.
__________________________________________________________________

COPY

* Accept COPY ... CSV FORCE QUOTE * (Itagaki Takahiro)
Now * can be used as shorthand for "all columns" in the FORCE QUOTE
clause.
* Add new "COPY" syntax that allows options to be specified inside
parentheses (Robert Haas, Emmanuel Cecchet)
This allows greater flexibility for future "COPY" options. The old
syntax is still supported, but only for pre-existing options.
__________________________________________________________________

EXPLAIN

* Allow "EXPLAIN" to output in XML, JSON, or YAML format (Robert
Haas, Greg Sabino Mullane)
The new output formats are easily machine-readable, supporting the
development of new tools for analysis of "EXPLAIN" output.
* Add new BUFFERS option to report query buffer usage during "EXPLAIN
ANALYZE" (Itagaki Takahiro)
This allows better query profiling for individual queries. Buffer
usage is no longer reported in the output for log_statement_stats
and related settings.
* Add hash usage information to "EXPLAIN" output (Robert Haas)
* Add new "EXPLAIN" syntax that allows options to be specified inside
parentheses (Robert Haas)
This allows greater flexibility for future "EXPLAIN" options. The
old syntax is still supported, but only for pre-existing options.
__________________________________________________________________

VACUUM

* Change "VACUUM FULL" to rewrite the entire table and rebuild its
indexes, rather than moving individual rows around to compact space
(Itagaki Takahiro, Tom Lane)
The previous method was usually slower and caused index bloat. Note
that the new method will use more disk space transiently during
"VACUUM FULL"; potentially as much as twice the space normally
occupied by the table and its indexes.
* Add new "VACUUM" syntax that allows options to be specified inside
parentheses (Itagaki Takahiro)
This allows greater flexibility for future "VACUUM" options. The
old syntax is still supported, but only for pre-existing options.
__________________________________________________________________

Indexes

* Allow an index to be named automatically by omitting the index name
in "CREATE INDEX" (Tom Lane)
* By default, multicolumn indexes are now named after all their
columns; and index expression columns are now named based on their
expressions (Tom Lane)
* Reindexing shared system catalogs is now fully transactional and
crash-safe (Tom Lane)
Formerly, reindexing a shared index was only allowed in standalone
mode, and a crash during the operation could leave the index in
worse condition than it was before.
* Add point_ops operator class for GiST (Teodor Sigaev)
This feature permits GiST indexing of point columns. The index can
be used for several types of queries such as "point" <@ "polygon"
(point is in polygon). This should make many PostGIS queries
faster.
* Use red-black binary trees for GIN index creation (Teodor Sigaev)
Red-black trees are self-balancing. This avoids slowdowns in cases
where the input is in nonrandom order.
__________________________________________________________________

Data Types

* Allow bytea values to be written in hex notation (Peter Eisentraut)
The server parameter bytea_output controls whether hex or
traditional format is used for bytea output. Libpq's
PQescapeByteaConn() function automatically uses the hex format when
connected to PostgreSQL 9.0 or newer servers.
The new hex format will be directly compatible with more
applications that use binary data, allowing them to store and
retrieve it without extra conversion. It is also significantly
faster to read and write than the traditional format.
* Allow server parameter extra_float_digits to be increased to 3 (Tom
Lane)
The previous maximum extra_float_digits setting was 2. There are
cases where 3 digits are needed to dump and restore float4 values
exactly. pg_dump will now use the setting of 3 when dumping from a
server that allows it.
* Tighten input checking for int2vector values (Caleb Welton)
__________________________________________________________________

Full Text Search

* Add prefix support in synonym dictionaries (Teodor Sigaev)
* Add filtering dictionaries (Teodor Sigaev)
Filtering dictionaries allow tokens to be modified then passed to
subsequent dictionaries.
* Allow underscores in email-address tokens (Teodor Sigaev)
* Use more standards-compliant rules for parsing URL tokens (Tom
Lane)
__________________________________________________________________

Functions

* Allow function calls to supply parameter names and match them to
named parameters in the function definition (Pavel Stehule)
For example, if a function is defined to take parameters a and b,
it can be called with func(a := 7, b := 12) or func(b := 12, a :=
7).
* Support locale-specific regular expression processing with UTF-8
server encoding (Tom Lane)
Locale-specific regular expression functionality includes
case-insensitive matching and locale-specific character classes.
Previously, these features worked correctly for non-ASCII
characters only if the database used a single-byte server encoding
(such as LATIN1). They will still misbehave in multi-byte encodings
other than UTF-8.
* Add support for scientific notation in to_char() (EEEE
specification) (Pavel Stehule, Brendan Jurd)
* Make to_char() honor FM (fill mode) in Y, YY, and YYY
specifications (Bruce Momjian, Tom Lane)
It was already honored by YYYY.
* Fix to_char() to output localized numeric and monetary strings in
the correct encoding on Windows (Hiroshi Inoue, Itagaki Takahiro,
Bruce Momjian)
* Correct calculations of "overlaps" and "contains" operations for
polygons (Teodor Sigaev)
The polygon && (overlaps) operator formerly just checked to see if
the two polygons' bounding boxes overlapped. It now does a more
correct check. The polygon @> and <@ (contains/contained by)
operators formerly checked to see if one polygon's vertexes were
all contained in the other; this can wrongly report "true" for some
non-convex polygons. Now they check that all line segments of one
polygon are contained in the other.
__________________________________________________________________

Aggregates

* Allow aggregate functions to use ORDER BY (Andrew Gierth)
For example, this is now supported: array_agg(a ORDER BY b). This
is useful with aggregates for which the order of input values is
significant, and eliminates the need to use a nonstandard subquery
to determine the ordering.
* Multi-argument aggregate functions can now use DISTINCT (Andrew
Gierth)
* Add the string_agg() aggregate function to combine values into a
single string (Pavel Stehule)
* Aggregate functions that are called with DISTINCT are now passed
NULL values if the aggregate transition function is not marked as
STRICT (Andrew Gierth)
For example, agg(DISTINCT x) might pass a NULL x value to agg().
This is more consistent with the behavior in non-DISTINCT cases.
__________________________________________________________________

Bit Strings

* Add get_bit() and set_bit() functions for bit strings, mirroring
those for bytea (Leonardo F)
* Implement OVERLAY() (replace) for bit strings and bytea (Leonardo
F)
__________________________________________________________________

Object Information Functions

* Add pg_table_size() and pg_indexes_size() to provide a more
user-friendly interface to the pg_relation_size() function (Bernd
Helmle)
* Add has_sequence_privilege() for sequence permission checking
(Abhijit Menon-Sen)
* Update the information_schema views to conform to SQL:2008 (Peter
Eisentraut)
* Make the information_schema views correctly display maximum octet
lengths for char and varchar columns (Peter Eisentraut)
* Speed up information_schema privilege views (Joachim Wieland)
__________________________________________________________________

Function and Trigger Creation

* Support execution of anonymous code blocks using the "DO" statement
(Petr Jelinek, Joshua Tolley, Hannu Valtonen)
This allows execution of server-side code without the need to
create and delete a temporary function definition. Code can be
executed in any language for which the user has permissions to
define a function.
* Implement SQL-standard-compliant per-column triggers (Itagaki
Takahiro)
Such triggers are fired only when the specified column(s) are
affected by the query, e.g. appear in an "UPDATE"'s SET list.
* Add the WHEN clause to "CREATE TRIGGER" to allow control over
whether a trigger is fired (Itagaki Takahiro)
While the same type of check can always be performed inside the
trigger, doing it in an external WHEN clause can have performance
benefits.
__________________________________________________________________

Server-Side Languages

* Add the OR REPLACE clause to "CREATE LANGUAGE" (Tom Lane)
This is helpful to optionally install a language if it does not
already exist, and is particularly helpful now that PL/pgSQL is
installed by default.
__________________________________________________________________

PL/PgSQL Server-Side Language

* Install PL/pgSQL by default (Bruce Momjian)
The language can still be removed from a particular database if the
administrator has security or performance concerns about making it
available.
* Improve handling of cases where PL/pgSQL variable names conflict
with identifiers used in queries within a function (Tom Lane)
The default behavior is now to throw an error when there is a
conflict, so as to avoid surprising behaviors. This can be
modified, via the configuration parameter plpgsql.variable_conflict
or the per-function option #variable_conflict, to allow either the
variable or the query-supplied column to be used. In any case
PL/pgSQL will no longer attempt to substitute variables in places
where they would not be syntactically valid.
* Make PL/pgSQL use the main lexer, rather than its own version (Tom
Lane)
This ensures accurate tracking of the main system's behavior for
details such as string escaping. Some user-visible details, such as
the set of keywords considered reserved in PL/pgSQL, have changed
in consequence.
* Avoid throwing an unnecessary error for an invalid record reference
(Tom Lane)
An error is now thrown only if the reference is actually fetched,
rather than whenever the enclosing expression is reached. For
example, many people have tried to do this in triggers:
if TG_OP = 'INSERT' and NEW.col1 = ... then
This will now actually work as expected.
* Improve PL/pgSQL's ability to handle row types with dropped columns
(Pavel Stehule)
* Allow input parameters to be assigned values within PL/pgSQL
functions (Steve Prentice)
Formerly, input parameters were treated as being declared CONST, so
the function's code could not change their values. This restriction
has been removed to simplify porting of functions from other DBMSes
that do not impose the equivalent restriction. An input parameter
now acts like a local variable initialized to the passed-in value.
* Improve error location reporting in PL/pgSQL (Tom Lane)
* Add "count" and ALL options to "MOVE FORWARD"/BACKWARD in PL/pgSQL
(Pavel Stehule)
* Allow PL/pgSQL's WHERE CURRENT OF to use a cursor variable (Tom
Lane)
* Allow PL/pgSQL's "OPEN cursor FOR EXECUTE" to use parameters (Pavel
Stehule, Itagaki Takahiro)
This is accomplished with a new USING clause.
__________________________________________________________________

PL/Perl Server-Side Language

* Add new PL/Perl functions: quote_literal(), quote_nullable(),
quote_ident(), encode_bytea(), decode_bytea(), looks_like_number(),
encode_array_literal(), encode_array_constructor() (Tim Bunce)
* Add server parameter plperl.on_init to specify a PL/Perl
initialization function (Tim Bunce)
plperl.on_plperl_init and plperl.on_plperlu_init are also available
for initialization that is specific to the trusted or untrusted
language respectively.
* Support "END" blocks in PL/Perl (Tim Bunce)
"END" blocks do not currently allow database access.
* Allow "use strict" in PL/Perl (Tim Bunce)
Perl strict checks can also be globally enabled with the new server
parameter plperl.use_strict.
* Allow "require" in PL/Perl (Tim Bunce)
This basically tests to see if the module is loaded, and if not,
generates an error. It will not allow loading of modules that the
administrator has not preloaded via the initialization parameters.
* Allow "use feature" in PL/Perl if Perl version 5.10 or later is
used (Tim Bunce)
* Verify that PL/Perl return values are valid in the server encoding
(Andrew Dunstan)
__________________________________________________________________

PL/Python Server-Side Language

* Add Unicode support in PL/Python (Peter Eisentraut)
Strings are automatically converted from/to the server encoding as
necessary.
* Improve bytea support in PL/Python (Caleb Welton)
Bytea values passed into PL/Python are now represented as binary,
rather than the PostgreSQL bytea text format. Bytea values
containing null bytes are now also output properly from PL/Python.
Passing of boolean, integer, and float values was also improved.
* Support arrays as parameters and return values in PL/Python (Peter
Eisentraut)
* Improve mapping of SQL domains to Python types (Peter Eisentraut)
* Add Python 3 support to PL/Python (Peter Eisentraut)
The new server-side language is called plpython3u. This cannot be
used in the same session with the Python 2 server-side language.
* Improve error location and exception reporting in PL/Python (Peter
Eisentraut)
__________________________________________________________________

Client Applications

* Add an "--analyze-only" option to "vacuumdb", to analyze without
vacuuming (Bruce Momjian)
__________________________________________________________________

psql

* Add support for quoting/escaping the values of psql variables as
SQL strings or identifiers (Pavel Stehule, Robert Haas)
For example, :'var' will produce the value of var quoted and
properly escaped as a literal string, while :"var" will produce its
value quoted and escaped as an identifier.
* Ignore a leading UTF-8-encoded Unicode byte-order marker in script
files read by psql (Itagaki Takahiro)
This is enabled when the client encoding is UTF-8. It improves
compatibility with certain editors, mostly on Windows, that insist
on inserting such markers.
* Fix "psql --file -" to properly honor "--single-transaction" (Bruce
Momjian)
* Avoid overwriting of psql's command-line history when two psql
sessions are run concurrently (Tom Lane)
* Improve psql's tab completion support (Itagaki Takahiro)
* Show \timing output when it is enabled, regardless of "quiet" mode
(Peter Eisentraut)
__________________________________________________________________

psql Display

* Improve display of wrapped columns in psql (Roger Leigh)
This behavior is now the default. The previous formatting is
available by using "\pset linestyle old-ascii".
* Allow psql to use fancy Unicode line-drawing characters via "\pset
linestyle unicode" (Roger Leigh)
__________________________________________________________________

psql \d Commands

* Make "\d" show child tables that inherit from the specified parent
(Damien Clochard)
"\d" shows only the number of child tables, while "\d+" shows the
names of all child tables.
* Show definitions of index columns in "\d index_name" (Khee Chin)
The definition is useful for expression indexes.
* Show a view's defining query only in "\d+", not in "\d" (Peter
Eisentraut)
Always including the query was deemed overly verbose.
__________________________________________________________________

pg_dump

* Make pg_dump/pg_restore "--clean" also remove large objects
(Itagaki Takahiro)
* Fix pg_dump to properly dump large objects when
standard_conforming_strings is enabled (Tom Lane)
The previous coding could fail when dumping to an archive file and
then generating script output from pg_restore.
* pg_restore now emits large-object data in hex format when
generating script output (Tom Lane)
This could cause compatibility problems if the script is then
loaded into a pre-9.0 server. To work around that, restore directly
to the server, instead.
* Allow pg_dump to dump comments attached to columns of composite
types (Taro Minowa (Higepon))
* Make pg_dump "--verbose" output the pg_dump and server versions in
text output mode (Jim Cox, Tom Lane)
These were already provided in custom output mode.
* pg_restore now complains if any command-line arguments remain after
the switches and optional file name (Tom Lane)
Previously, it silently ignored any such arguments.
__________________________________________________________________

pg_ctl

* Allow pg_ctl to be used safely to start the postmaster during a
system reboot (Tom Lane)
Previously, pg_ctl's parent process could have been mistakenly
identified as a running postmaster based on a stale postmaster lock
file, resulting in a transient failure to start the database.
* Give pg_ctl the ability to initialize the database (by invoking
initdb) (Zdenek Kotala)
__________________________________________________________________

Development Tools

libpq

* Add new libpq functions PQconnectdbParams() and
PQconnectStartParams() (Guillaume Lelarge)
These functions are similar to PQconnectdb() and PQconnectStart()
except that they accept a null-terminated array of connection
options, rather than requiring all options to be provided in a
single string.
* Add libpq functions PQescapeLiteral() and PQescapeIdentifier()
(Robert Haas)
These functions return appropriately quoted and escaped SQL string
literals and identifiers. The caller is not required to
pre-allocate the string result, as is required by
PQescapeStringConn().
* Add support for a per-user service file (".pg_service.conf"), which
is checked before the site-wide service file (Peter Eisentraut)
* Properly report an error if the specified libpq service cannot be
found (Peter Eisentraut)
* Add TCP keepalive settings in libpq (Tollef Fog Heen, Fujii Masao,
Robert Haas)
Keepalive settings were already supported on the server end of TCP
connections.
* Avoid extra system calls to block and unblock SIGPIPE in libpq, on
platforms that offer alternative methods (Jeremy Kerr)
* When a ".pgpass"-supplied password fails, mention where the
password came from in the error message (Bruce Momjian)
* Load all SSL certificates given in the client certificate file (Tom
Lane)
This improves support for indirectly-signed SSL certificates.
__________________________________________________________________

ecpg

* Add SQLDA (SQL Descriptor Area) support to ecpg (Boszormenyi
Zoltan)
* Add the "DESCRIBE" [ OUTPUT ] statement to ecpg (Boszormenyi
Zoltan)
* Add an ECPGtransactionStatus function to return the current
transaction status (Bernd Helmle)
* Add the string data type in ecpg Informix-compatibility mode
(Boszormenyi Zoltan)
* Allow ecpg to use new and old variable names without restriction
(Michael Meskes)
* Allow ecpg to use variable names in free() (Michael Meskes)
* Make ecpg_dynamic_type() return zero for non-SQL3 data types
(Michael Meskes)
Previously it returned the negative of the data type OID. This
could be confused with valid type OIDs, however.
* Support long long types on platforms that already have 64-bit long
(Michael Meskes)
__________________________________________________________________

ecpg Cursors

* Add out-of-scope cursor support in ecpg's native mode (Boszormenyi
Zoltan)
This allows "DECLARE" to use variables that are not in scope when
"OPEN" is called. This facility already existed in ecpg's
Informix-compatibility mode.
* Allow dynamic cursor names in ecpg (Boszormenyi Zoltan)
* Allow ecpg to use noise words FROM and IN in "FETCH" and "MOVE"
(Boszormenyi Zoltan)
__________________________________________________________________

Build Options

* Enable client thread safety by default (Bruce Momjian)
The thread-safety option can be disabled with configure
"--disable-thread-safety".
* Add support for controlling the Linux out-of-memory killer (Alex
Hunsaker, Tom Lane)
Now that "/proc/self/oom_adj" allows disabling of the Linux
out-of-memory (OOM) killer, it's recommendable to disable OOM kills
for the postmaster. It may then be desirable to re-enable OOM kills
for the postmaster's child processes. The new compile-time option
LINUX_OOM_ADJ allows the killer to be reactivated for child
processes.
__________________________________________________________________

Makefiles

* New "Makefile" targets world, install-world, and installcheck-world
(Andrew Dunstan)
These are similar to the existing all, install, and installcheck
targets, but they also build the HTML documentation, build and test
"contrib", and test server-side languages and ecpg.
* Add data and documentation installation location control to PGXS
Makefiles (Mark Cave-Ayland)
* Add Makefile rules to build the PostgreSQL documentation as a
single HTML file or as a single plain-text file (Peter Eisentraut,
Bruce Momjian)
__________________________________________________________________

Windows

* Support compiling on 64-bit Windows and running in 64-bit mode
(Tsutomu Yamada, Magnus Hagander)
This allows for large shared memory sizes on Windows.
* Support server builds using Visual Studio 2008 (Magnus Hagander)
__________________________________________________________________

Source Code

* Distribute prebuilt documentation in a subdirectory tree, rather
than as tar archive files inside the distribution tarball (Peter
Eisentraut)
For example, the prebuilt HTML documentation is now in
"doc/src/sgml/html/"; the manual pages are packaged similarly.
* Make the server's lexer reentrant (Tom Lane)
This was needed for use of the lexer by PL/pgSQL.
* Improve speed of memory allocation (Tom Lane, Greg Stark)
* User-defined constraint triggers now have entries in pg_constraint
as well as pg_trigger (Tom Lane)
Because of this change, pg_constraint.pgconstrname is now redundant
and has been removed.
* Add system catalog columns pg_constraint.conindid and
pg_trigger.tgconstrindid to better document the use of indexes for
constraint enforcement (Tom Lane)
* Allow multiple conditions to be communicated to backends using a
single operating system signal (Fujii Masao)
This allows new features to be added without a platform-specific
constraint on the number of signal conditions.
* Improve source code test coverage, including "contrib", PL/Python,
and PL/Perl (Peter Eisentraut, Andrew Dunstan)
* Remove the use of flat files for system table bootstrapping (Tom
Lane, Alvaro Herrera)
This improves performance when using many roles or databases, and
eliminates some possible failure conditions.
* Automatically generate the initial contents of pg_attribute for
"bootstrapped" catalogs (John Naylor)
This greatly simplifies changes to these catalogs.
* Split the processing of "INSERT"/"UPDATE"/"DELETE" operations out
of "execMain.c" (Marko Tiikkaja)
Updates are now executed in a separate ModifyTable node. This
change is necessary infrastructure for future improvements.
* Simplify translation of psql's SQL help text (Peter Eisentraut)
* Reduce the lengths of some file names so that all file paths in the
distribution tarball are less than 100 characters (Tom Lane)
Some decompression programs have problems with longer file paths.
* Add a new ERRCODE_INVALID_PASSWORD SQLSTATE error code (Bruce
Momjian)
* With authors' permissions, remove the few remaining personal source
code copyright notices (Bruce Momjian)
The personal copyright notices were insignificant but the community
occasionally had to answer questions about them.
* Add new documentation section about running PostgreSQL in
non-durable mode to improve performance (Bruce Momjian)
* Restructure the HTML documentation "Makefile" rules to make their
dependency checks work correctly, avoiding unnecessary rebuilds
(Peter Eisentraut)
* Use DocBook XSL stylesheets for man page building, rather than
Docbook2X (Peter Eisentraut)
This changes the set of tools needed to build the man pages.
* Improve PL/Perl code structure (Tim Bunce)
* Improve error context reports in PL/Perl (Alexey Klyukin)
__________________________________________________________________

New Build Requirements

Note that these requirements do not apply when building from a
distribution tarball, since tarballs include the files that these
programs are used to build.

* Require Autoconf 2.63 to build configure (Peter Eisentraut)
* Require Flex 2.5.31 or later to build from a CVS checkout (Tom
Lane)
* Require Perl version 5.8 or later to build from a CVS checkout
(John Naylor, Andrew Dunstan)
__________________________________________________________________

Portability

* Use a more modern API for Bonjour (Tom Lane)
Bonjour support now requires OS X 10.3 or later. The older API has
been deprecated by Apple.
* Add spinlock support for the SuperH architecture (Nobuhiro
Iwamatsu)
* Allow non-GCC compilers to use inline functions if they support
them (Kurt Harriman)
* Remove support for platforms that don't have a working 64-bit
integer data type (Tom Lane)
* Restructure use of LDFLAGS to be more consistent across platforms
(Tom Lane)
LDFLAGS is now used for linking both executables and shared
libraries, and we add on LDFLAGS_EX when linking executables, or
LDFLAGS_SL when linking shared libraries.
__________________________________________________________________

Server Programming

* Make backend header files safe to include in C++ (Kurt Harriman,
Peter Eisentraut)
These changes remove keyword conflicts that previously made C++
usage difficult in backend code. However, there are still other
complexities when using C++ for backend functions. extern "C" { }
is still necessary in appropriate places, and memory management and
error handling are still problematic.
* Add AggCheckCallContext() for use in detecting if a C function is
being called as an aggregate (Hitoshi Harada)
* Change calling convention for SearchSysCache() and related
functions to avoid hard-wiring the maximum number of cache keys
(Robert Haas)
Existing calls will still work for the moment, but can be expected
to break in 9.1 or later if not converted to the new style.
* Require calls of fastgetattr() and heap_getattr() backend macros to
provide a non-NULL fourth argument (Robert Haas)
* Custom typanalyze functions should no longer rely on
VacAttrStats.attr to determine the type of data they will be passed
(Tom Lane)
This was changed to allow collection of statistics on index columns
for which the storage type is different from the underlying column
data type. There are new fields that tell the actual datatype being
analyzed.
__________________________________________________________________

Server Hooks

* Add parser hooks for processing ColumnRef and ParamRef nodes (Tom
Lane)
* Add a ProcessUtility hook so loadable modules can control utility
commands (Itagaki Takahiro)
__________________________________________________________________

Binary Upgrade Support

* Add "contrib/pg_upgrade" to support in-place upgrades (Bruce
Momjian)
This avoids the requirement of dumping/reloading the database when
upgrading to a new major release of PostgreSQL, thus reducing
downtime by orders of magnitude. It supports upgrades to 9.0 from
PostgreSQL 8.3 and 8.4.
* Add support for preserving relation relfilenode values during
binary upgrades (Bruce Momjian)
* Add support for preserving pg_type and pg_enum OIDs during binary
upgrades (Bruce Momjian)
* Move data files within tablespaces into PostgreSQL-version-specific
subdirectories (Bruce Momjian)
This simplifies binary upgrades.
__________________________________________________________________

Contrib

* Add multithreading option ("-j") to "contrib/pgbench" (Itagaki
Takahiro)
This allows multiple CPUs to be used by pgbench, reducing the risk
of pgbench itself becoming the test bottleneck.
* Add "\shell" and "\setshell" meta commands to "contrib/pgbench"
(Michael Paquier)
* New features for "contrib/dict_xsyn" (Sergey Karpov)
The new options are matchorig, matchsynonyms, and keepsynonyms.
* Add full text dictionary "contrib/unaccent" (Teodor Sigaev)
This filtering dictionary removes accents from letters, which makes
full-text searches over multiple languages much easier.
* Add dblink_get_notify() to "contrib/dblink" (Marcus Kempe)
This allows asynchronous notifications in dblink.
* Improve "contrib/dblink"'s handling of dropped columns (Tom Lane)
This affects dblink_build_sql_insert() and related functions. These
functions now number columns according to logical not physical
column numbers.
* Greatly increase "contrib/hstore"'s data length limit, and add
B-tree and hash support so GROUP BY and DISTINCT operations are
possible on hstore columns (Andrew Gierth)
New functions and operators were also added. These improvements
make hstore a full-function key-value store embedded in PostgreSQL.
* Add "contrib/passwordcheck" to support site-specific password
strength policies (Laurenz Albe)
The source code of this module should be modified to implement
site-specific password policies.
* Add "contrib/pg_archivecleanup" tool (Simon Riggs)
This is designed to be used in the archive_cleanup_command server
parameter, to remove no-longer-needed archive files.
* Add query text to "contrib/auto_explain" output (Andrew Dunstan)
* Add buffer access counters to "contrib/pg_stat_statements" (Itagaki
Takahiro)
* Update "contrib/start-scripts/linux" to use "/proc/self/oom_adj" to
disable the Linux out-of-memory (OOM) killer (Alex Hunsaker, Tom
Lane)

----
こがよういちろう


投稿者 xml-rpc : 2010年9月21日 09:51
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